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Cultural Patterns and Technical Change
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Five Sentence Abstract:

First, a culture must be understood by closely watching and documenting the interactions between its members. Next, determine which of the current cultural tendencies can be exploited to introduce a, usually minor, change in habit. Care must be taken to limit the negative consequences, when possible, of the introduced change, which can be far reaching and non-intuitive. Education of the, primarily, younger generation can smooth the transition towards industrialization - children are educated to accept the constant change the new society will be subject to. Money economies and cash crops often obliterate a community - children can skip rites of passage by buying a herd of their own, cash crops introduce malnutrition, and foreign goods often displace traditional roles, such as factory produced clothing replacing woman spinning the family's clothing.

Thoughts:

Look at how cultures react and find holes to which western values can be leaked in. Eventually the idea is to atomize and break up the family. The family support structure is then replaced by the state/administration.

How to get the people of Burma to stop lounging and socializing and get to work! Similarly how to introduce the western ideal to Greece, Palau, and more. Most of the societies described seem very slow paced, stress-free, and family oriented. I would MUCH rather have those ideals than the keep up with the Jones' attitude so prevalent now.

All about altering and exploiting patterns. It reminds me a lot of permaculture. Toby Hemenway's site used to be called, (I think) PatternLiteracy.com. Some permaculture concepts, like contour plowing and permanent crops, appear in this book decades before permaculture. Bill Mollison chastised the FAO, but was he a trojan horse? While this image is not very strong evidence, it at least shows Mead influenced some permaculture groups.

Looking closer you find that Waste Warriors World is steep in "change" terminology so present in social engineering operations. Mead is quoted on the front page as well as a former London mayor. They even have a section promoting an agency that you can report litterbugs to. Littering is bad, but is an authority dishing out fines the way to stop it, and don't we have bigger fish to fry?

Bennett is also mention as a soil conservationist, but in reading Yeoman's (a close friend of Mollison) work you can see Bennett was of the opinion that soil was lost forever when it was removed - that is would take thousands of years to produce one inch of topsoil. Again, this is no evidence of collusion, but, as with many other areas of social manipulation, there seems to be a short path back to the Huxley's. Bennett->Mead->Bateson->Aldous (CIA) or Bennett->Mead->Julian (UNESCO).

A common term used is "radical". As in radical change. This term is also associated with such things as feminism, punk rock, and most recently radical compassion. It seems that radical may be some kind of codeword used persuade youth that what they are doing is not exactly what the powers that be want them to do.

Lenin said: "Give me four years to teach the children and the seed I have sown will never be uprooted."

Exceptional Excerpts:

Notes:

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Published in 1953 by the United Nations
Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization
19 avenue Kleber, Paris-16e
2nd impression, March 1954
Printed by The IJsel Press, Lid. Deventer (Holland)
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Lawrence K.Frank
Eliot D. Chapple
Claire Holt
Dorothy Demetracopoulou Lee
Margaret Mead
George Saslow
John Useem
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Chairman:
Lawrence K. Frank (IPAC)1
Former Director, Caroline Zachry
Institute for Human Development

1 IPAC:American Regional Interprofessional Advisory Committee, World Federation
for Mental Health.

John Adair, Ph.D.
Assistant Professor of Anthropology Department of Sociology and Anthropology
Corne11 University
Ithaca, New York

Leona Baumgartner, M.D.
Assistant Commissioner in charge of Maternal and Child Welfare
New York City Department of Health
125 Worth Street
New York, New York

Carl Binger, M.D.
Director, Mary Conover Mellon Foundation for the Advancement of Education
Vassar College
Poughkeepsie,New York
125 East 73rd Street
New York, New York

Eliot Chapple, Ph.D.
President, the E.D. Chapple Company
61 West 55th Street
New York 19, New York

Bingham Dai, Ph.D.(IPAC)
Professor of Mental Hygiene and Psycho-therapy
Medical School, Duke University
Durham, North Carolina

Frank Fremont-Smith, M.D.
(IPAC)
Medical Director, Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation
565 Park Avenue
New York, New York

Elizabeth Hoyt, Ph.D.
Professor of Economics Iowa State College
Ames, Iowa (on leave of absence at present at
the Institute of Social Research, Makerere
College, Kampala, Uganda)

Otto Klineberg, M.D.,Ph.D.(IPAC)
Professor of Psychology
Columbia University
New York 27, New York

Mary Fisher Langmuir, Ph.D.
Professor of Child Study
Vassar College
Poughkeepsie,New York
also Director of Vassar Summer Institute
also President, Child Study Association of America

Margaret Mead, Ph.D. (IPAC)
Associate Curator of Ethnology
American Museum of Natural History
New York 24,New York

William Menninger, M.D.
General Secretary, Menninger Foundation
Topeka, Kansas

Michel Pijoan, M.D.
Chief of Medical Service
Navaho Medical Center
Fort Defiance, Arizona

Nina Ridenour, Ph.D. (IPAC)
Director, Division of Education
National Association of Mental Health
1790 Broadway
N e w York, New York

Nathan Sinai, M.D.
Professor of Public Health
University of Michigan
Ann Arbor, Michigan

Edward Spier, Ph.D.
Professor of Anthropology and Sociology
University of Arizona
Tucson, Arizona

George S.Stevenson, M.D. (IPAC)
Medical Director
National Association for Mental Health
1790 Boadway
New York, New York

John Useem, Ph.D.
Associate Professor
Department of Sociology and Anthropology
Michigan State College
East Lansing, Michigan

Note. All biographical and bibliographical details are as of June 1951.
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Introduction Note:

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Chapter 1: Introduction

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Chapter 2: The International Setting of Technical Change

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Social justice is a prerequisite for peace. The IL0 will promote improvement of
labour conditions, especially where injustice, hardship and privation to large
numbers of people exist, by furthering:

regulation of hours of work, including the establishment of a maximum working
day and week;
the regulation of the labour supply;
the prevention of unemployment;
the provision of an adequate living wage;
the protection of the worker against sickness, disease, and injury arising out
of employment;
provision for old age and injury;
the protection of children, young persons, and women;
protection of the interests of workers when employed in countries other than
their own;
recognition of the principle of freedom of association:
the organization of vocational and technical education and other measures.‘
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Common welfare will be promoted by the FAO by means of action toward
raising levels of nutrition and standards of living of the peoples. . .;
securing improvements in the efficiency of the production and distribution of
all food and agricultural products;
bettering the condition of rural populations and thus contributing toward an
expanding world economy.2
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The nations who established Unesco believe in “full and equal opportunities for
education for all,” “unrestricted pursuit of objective truth,” and ‘‘free exchange
of ideas and knowledge”. Unesco believes that the intellectual and moral solidarity
of mankind is essential for lasting peace and the “education of humanity for
justice, liberty, and peace” are the sacred duty which all nations must fulfill.
Unesco will further:

mutual knowledge and understanding of peoples;
popular education and the spread of culture;
maintenance, increase and diffusion of knowledge.

(A special clause in Article I, on Purposes and Functions of Unesco, states:
With a view to preserving the independence, integrity and fruitful diversity
of the cultures and educational systems of the States Members of this Organization,
the Organization is prohibited from intervening in matters which are essentially
within their domestic jurisdiction.)’
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“Attainment by all peoples of the highest possible level of health” is the principal
objective of WHO, and health is defined as a state of “complete physical, mental,
and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”.
The aims of W H O are not only to further protective measures, such as the
elimination of reservoirs of communicable diseases, but also to promote measures
toward positive health by means of public health education in the widest sense.
Among the principles enunciated by Member States of WHO in its charter, the
following are directly relevant to the social aspects:

Healthy development of the child is of basic importance; the ability to live
harmoniously in a changing total environment is essential to such
development.

Governments have a responsibility for the health of their peoples which can
be fulfilled only by the provision of adequate health and social measures.$
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By its own definition,Unicef is “an international co-operative on behalf ofchildren”
and is designed to make a permanent contribution to child welfare. From concen-
tration on child feeding to meet postwar emergency needs following cessation of
Unrra activities in 1946, when Unicef came into being, the organization is in-
creasingly turning toward long standing problems of maternal and child welfare
and works closely with W H O in this field.8
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This organization is responsible for drawing up and maintaining the basic code
of international practice in all matters pertaining to civil aviation and among its
objectives is to ensure the safe and orderly growth of international civil aviation
throughout the world, as another important facet of international co-operation
conducive to peace3
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The International Bank was established “to assist in the reconstruction and
development of territories of members by facilitating the investment of capital
for productive purposes, including the restoration of economics destroyed or
disrupted by war, the reconversion of productive facilities to peacetime needs
and the encouragement of the development of productive facilities and resources
in less developed countries.” The promotion of long-range balanced growth of
international trade and the maintenance of financial equilibrium in member
countries “thereby assisting in raising productivity, the standards of living
and conditions of labour in their territories” are among the principal purposes
of the BANK.’ ”
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Established for the purpose of consultation and co-operation on international
monetary problems, FUND, like B A N K , hopes to facilitate the “expansion and
balanced growth of international trade” which, in turn, would contribute to the
“maintenance of high levels of employment and real income and to the development
of the productive resources” of member countries.2
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INTERNATIONAL BODIES CONCERNED WITH TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE

On this chart the circled units are those actually or potentially concerned
with the implementation of technical assistance. Basic units are linked by
solid lines. Closed line circles indicate functioning units; open line circles
are potentialities.

ABBREVIATIONS
United Nations Specialized Agencies and International Organizations

BANK: International Bank for Reconstruction and Development
FAO: Food and Agriculture Organization
FUND: International Monetary Fund
ICAO: International Civil Aviation Organization
ILO:International Labour Organisation
IMCO: lntergovemmental Maritime Consultative Organization
IRO: International Refugee Organization
ITO:InternationalTrade Organization
ITU : International Telecommunication Union
UNESCO: United Nations Educational, Scientificand Cultural Organization
UNICEF: United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund
UNRWA:United Nations Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the
Near East.
UPU: Universal Postal Union
WHO : World Health Organization
United Nations Bodies created for the Expanded Programme of Technical Asskiancc
TAA:Technical Assistance Administration (UN)
TAB: Technical Assistance Board
TAC:Technical Assistance Committee of the Economic and Social Council
Regional Commissions of the Economic and Social Council
ECAFE: Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East
ECE: Economic Commission for Europe
ECU : Economic Commission for Latin America
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Chapter 3: Studies of Whole Cultures

Burma

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Greece

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The Tiv of Nigeria

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Palau

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The Spanish Americans of New Mexico , U.S.A.

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Chapter 4: Cross-Cultural Studies of Aspects of Technical Change

Agriculture

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Unfortunately, it [distrust] is also rooted in the mistakes made by the agents of change who sometimes managed to persuade the peasants to use new ways which proved disastrous because of local conditions. In Burma, deep ploughing introduced by European agricultural experts broke up the hard pan that held the water in the rice fields. The weeding of rubber plantations reduced the sap. The new tomato, which the Burmese were persuaded to grow because it was more productive, had a flavour they did not like.1

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Nutrition

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Maternal and Child Care

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the reasons for urging scheduled feeding appear irrelevant, and the introduction of such feeding would necessitate as well the teaching of the mother to equate breast-feeding with nutrition alone.

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Public Health

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Medicine: Disease Treatment and Prevention

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Industrialization

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Chapter 5: Specific Mental Health Implications of Technical Change

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Chapter 6: Principles Involved in Developing Mental Health During Technical

Change

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APPENDIX A - Original Plan Presented to UNESCO by the World Federation for Mental Health - MEMORANDUM











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